A Microphone is a electronic device which translates sound vibration into electronic signals/mode. There are many uses of Microphone, it helps us in communicating with peoples and many other uses. Microphones can be used to record sounds and music and can also be used for communication.
Nowadays, Microphones are designed for a specific purpose. So depending on the use for which we need Microphones it has been divided in some different Types of microphones.
The world’s first electronic microphone was made on a liquid based mechanism which was using a specialised diaphragm attached to a current charged needle in a diluted sulfuric acid solution. This microphone was not able to stand in a good position and give great user experience and was also not able to reproduce intelligible speech.
CARBON MICROPHONE: The carbon microphone was the earliest type of microphone. The carbon button microphone (or sometimes just a button microphone), uses a capsule or button containing carbon granules pressed between two metal plates like the Berliner and Edison microphones. A voltage is applied across the metal plates, causing a small current to flow through the carbon. One of the plates, the diaphragm, vibrates in sympathy with incident sound waves, applying a varying pressure to the carbon. The changing pressure deforms the granules inside the mic, causing the contact area between each pair of the adjacent granules to change, and this causes the electrical resistance of the mass of the granules to change. The changes in the resistance causes a corresponding change in the current flowing through the mic, producing a electrical signal. The Carbon microphones were once commonly used in the telephones as they were having extremely low-quality sound reproduction and a very limited frequency response range, but are very robust devices.
CONDENSER MICROPHONE: The Condenser microphone was invented in 1916. The condenser microphone is also named as capacitor microphone or electrostatic microphone—capacitors were historically called condensers. The whole diaphragm here acts as one single plate of a capacitor, and the vibrations produced changes in the distance between the plates. These are of two types, depending on the method/way by which they extract the audio signal from the transducer: DC-biased microphones, and radio frequency (RF) or high frequency (HF) condenser microphones.
DYNAMIC MICROPHONE: The Dynamic microphone is also named as moving-coil microphone. It works on electromagnetic induction. They are robust which are waterproof and relatively inexpensive. A Dynamic microphone uses the same dynamic principle as used in a loudspeaker, it is only reversed. A small movable induction coil, which is positioned in the magnetic field of a permanent magnet, which is attached to the diaphragm. When the sound enters through the windscreen of the microphone, the sound wave moves to the diaphragm. When the diaphragm starts vibrating, the coil moves in the magnetic field, producing a varying current in the coil through electromagnetic induction.
RIBBON MICROPHONE: The Ribbon microphone uses a thin metal ribbon suspended in a magnetic field which is usually corrugated. The ribbon is electrically connected/attached to the microphone’s output, and the vibration within the magnetic field of the microphone generates the electrical signal. Ribbon microphones are similar as to the moving coil microphones in the sense that both the microphone produces sound by means of magnetic induction. The Basic ribbon microphones detect sound in a bi-directional pattern, (which is also know as figure-eight) because the ribbon is open on both the sides. Also, because the ribbon is much less mass, as it responds to the air velocity rather than the sound pressure. Though the symmetrical front and rear pickup could be a nuisance in a normal stereo recording, the high side rejection can be used for the advantage by positioning a ribbon microphone horizontally, so that the rear lobe picks up the sound only from the cymbals.
Best Manufacturers / Best Brand of MICROPHONES
Samson was founded in 1980 and it entered the market of microphones by designing a new wireless microphone system. Till date, they have achieved many aims and are also an industry leader in both the consumer audio and the professional audio with three notable popular brands: Samson Audio, Samson Wireless and Hartke. They have more than 250 of advanced microphones are sold and distributed in 140 countries in the earth. In 1980, Samson introduced the first wireless microphone system in the earth. Over the past years Samson gained many achievements and is the leader in wireless microphone field. In the early ’90s, Samson began to expand their reach of all the audio products, by making development in various products such as development of power amplifiers, mixers, wired microphones and signal processors. In 2005, Samson introduced the first professional USB microphones for musicians, microphones for broadcasters and microphones for podcast enthusiasts. Their USB microphones are now the industry standard microphones.
Blue Microphones is an authorised manufacturer of audio production company that was founded in 1995. Blue Microphones designs and produces microphones, headphones, recording tools, signal processors, and music accessories for audio professionals, musicians and consumers. The Blue Microphones, manufactures Microphones such as condenser microphones, ribbon microphones, dynamic microphones, USB microphones, and headphones.
Neumann was founded in 1928 by George Neumann. They are the prominent manufacturer of professional recording microphones.
Neumann’s most popular products are condenser microphones for broadcasting, live and music production purposes. For several decades The Neumann was also a leading manufacturer of cutting lathes for phonograph disks, and even ventured into the field of mixing desks for a short while.
Shure was founded in 1925 by Sydney Shure. The Shure became a consumer and a professional audio-electronics manufacturer of microphones, wireless microphone systems, phonograph cartridges, discussion systems, mixers, and digital signal processing. The company was also manufacturing listening products such as headphones, high-end earphones, and personal monitor systems.
Shure microphones have the industry standard for beginners and all professionals alike and offer legendary sound quality and awesone reliability. Whether you need a vocal or a instrumental microphone, a set of drum microphones, or wireless microphones you can get all the microphones based on your requirements.